Carbon steel is the most common type of steel used in fastener production. Grades 2, 5, and 8 are typically the standard for carbon-steel based screws and bolts, with alloyed carbon steel being a higher-end variation on these metals. Their mechanical strength ranges from approximately 50 ksi (kilo-pound per square inch) up to 300 ksi in a finished product.
*Available in inch and metric sizes.
Material properties for these grades include:
Grade 2: This is a low carbon category that features the least expensive, but also least durable, types of steel. Grade 2 material is highly workable, and forms the bulk of steel grade fasteners.
Grade 5: Grade 5 steels are produced from unalloyed medium carbon groups and are usually work-hardened to improve their strength. Core Rockwell hardness C19-C30.
Grade 8: These steels are typically medium carbon alloy. They are work-hardened to a high degree, making them stronger.Core Rockwell hardness C33-C39.
Alloy steel: Alloy steel is steel that has small amounts of one or more alloying elements (other than carbon) such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium or aluminum added.Alloy steel is used mostly for socket products. Brinell hardness is a range depending on the alloying elements mixed in.
Metric Fasteners follow a different carbon steel grade system.
Class 4.6 & 4.8 are made of low or medium carbon steel.
Class 8.8 is made from medium quenched and tempered carbon steel.
Class 12.9 exceeds grade 8. Made from quenched and tempered alloy steel.
Steel comes in all forms including flat bar, hex bar, round bar, square bar, plate and sheet.
Types of fasteners made with carbon steels:
Carriage bolts, anchor bolts flange bolts, hanger bolts, eye bolts, structural bolts, T-head bolts, sheet metal screws, TEK screws, wood screws, U Bolts, hex nuts, square nuts, wing nuts, washers, lock washers, retaining rings and much more.
Most common carbon steels used in manufacturing metal components are: 1018, 1215, 12L14,1137